Classification of alluvial soils - problematic issues on the examples from South Baltic Lakelands, north Poland
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Wydział Nauk o Ziemi i Gospodarki Przestrzennej, Katedra Gleboznawstwa i Kształtowania Krajobrazu, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Polska
Wydział Nauk o Ziemi i Gospodarki Przestrzennej, Laboratorium Analiz Środowiskowych, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Polska
Marcin Świtoniak   

Wydział Nauk o Ziemi i Gospodarki Przestrzennej, Katedra Gleboznawstwa i Kształtowania Krajobrazu, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Polska
Submission date: 2022-07-20
Final revision date: 2022-11-05
Acceptance date: 2022-12-03
Online publication date: 2022-12-03
Publication date: 2022-12-20
Soil Sci. Ann., 2022, 73(3)157099
Alluvial soils constitute a group of soils that is very diverse in terms of their genesis and what is the effect of it – most of properties, e.g. organic carbon content, features connected with ground or stagnating water, development of B horizons or texture. It is also reflected in their systematic position. Currently, the Polish Soil Classification (PSC, 2019) distinguishes as many as 3 types of soils developed from fluvic materials: ordinary, chernozemic and brown alluvial soils. Some of soils with alluvial sediments strongly influenced by water but without diagnostic horizons can be also classified as gleysols or stagnosols. The aim of the article was to check the criteria and to verify completeness of units in the rank of types and subtypes for distinguishing alluvial soils in latest version of Polish Soil Classification (PSC, 2019). The study was carried out in area covered by Vistulian glaciation in Northern Poland. 87 profiles to the maximum depth of 210 cm were studied. 18 pedons belong to chernozemic alluvial soils, the most common type (48) was classified as brown alluvial soils, ordinary alluvial soils occurred 11 times. Moreover, 7 pedons with fluvic material were classified as gleysols. Other 3 soils represented organic and colluvial soils. Based on the conducted research some changes in Polish Soil Classification have been proposed. They are regarding the minimum thickness of fluvic materials for classifying alluvial soils, the revision of the humus subtype, the introduction of the type of gleyzemic alluvial soils in gleyzemic order or subtype of alluvial soils in type of gleysols and subtype of waterlogged soils in chernozemic alluvial soil type. The article also addresses important issues of the origin and classification of B horizons in the studied soils, and confirmed significant usefulness of soil-agricultural maps in determining the places of occurrence of alluvial soils.
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