Methodological problems with the classification and measurement of soils containing carbonates
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Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Polska
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Polska
Faculty of Geography and Geology, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Polska
Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Polska
Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Soil Science and Microbiology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Polska
LLC Company, Energy Composites, Polska
Department of Natural Environment Biogeochemistry, Institute of Agrophysics PAS, Polska
Andrzej Bieganowski   

Department of Natural Environment Biogeochemistry, Institute of Agrophysics PAS, Polska
Submission date: 2021-09-01
Final revision date: 2021-12-06
Acceptance date: 2022-04-14
Online publication date: 2022-04-14
Soil Sci. Ann., 2022, 73(1)149235
Soils containing carbonates are common and are found in various regions around the world. Carbonate content in soils varies and ranges from several to tens of percent. It mainly depends on the nature of the parent rock and the soil-forming processes to which the soil was/is subjected. In some cases, soil carbonate content is affected by an admixture of allochthonous material (anthropogenic and/or natural). Soils containing carbonates can often be problematic both in terms of their classification and analysis. When classifying such soils, it is important to distinguish between primary and secondary carbonates and to take into account the presence of carbonate skeletal parts. The determination of soil carbonate content depends on its nature – taking this into account, analytical procedures may differ depending on local soil chemistry. Carbonates, due to interactions between individual chemical substances, can generate a variety of methodological problems when determining soil characteristics. This fact applies to physical properties such as particle size distribution, chemical and adsorption properties (e.g. content of soluble phosphorus, cation exchange capacity), but also to the determination of the examined micromorphological characteristics. Carbonates also often affect the results of organic carbon analysis, especially in light of the development of modern measurement techniques. This paper attempts to look at common problems related to the systematics and analysis of soils containing carbonates, and presents the solutions used. We believe this paper will be helpful to those who work with carbonate soils.
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