Risk identification of Hg and Pb in soil: a case study from Pangkep Regency, Indonesia
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Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
Ratna Dwi Puji Astuti   

Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan KM 10, KM.10, Tamalanre, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
Submission date: 2020-07-07
Final revision date: 2021-01-14
Acceptance date: 2021-04-02
Online publication date: 2021-04-20
Publication date: 2021-04-20
Soil Sci. Ann., 2021, 72(1)135394
Lithogenic and anthropogenic activities can increase the concentration of heavy metals in the soil and degradation of environmental quality. Pangkajene dan kepulauan (Pangkep) regency is one of the areas in South Sulawesi Province which has severe environmental pressure. Twenty two surface soils of Pangkajene dan Kepulauan (Pangkep) regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia were collected in order to determine the contamination status and potential ecological risks. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to evaluate the contamination and risk level. The metal content in soils was determined using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) for Hg and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (F-AAS) for Pb. The results showed that the concentration of Hg and Pb ranged from 20.81- 223.47 mg kg-1 and 25.98-108.68 mg kg-1 respectively. Pb concentration in studied soil was below the quality standard for soil, whereas the Hg concentration was exceeded the soil quality standard. Agriculture field in Bungoro sub-district has the highest Hg concentration. The Igeo value showed that the soil in Pangkajene was extremely enriched with Hg and moderately enriched by Pb. The ecological risk index showed comprehensively the watershed area was at extreme risk level in need of effective monitoring and pollution control, and Hg is the important risk factor of Pangkajene watershed area.
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