Identification of potential acid sulfate soils at the Reda River mouth (northern Poland) using pH measurements
More details
Hide details
Department of Soil Science and Landscape Management, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Lwowska 1, Toruń, Poland
Laboratory for Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Lwowska 1, Toruń, Poland
Geological Survey of Finland, PO Box 97, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67101 Kokkola, Finland
Department of Soil Science, Institute of Agriculture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776, Warsaw, Poland
Submission date: 2019-10-09
Acceptance date: 2020-04-22
Online publication date: 2020-06-03
Publication date: 2020-06-03
Soil Sci. Ann., 2020, 71(2), 149–157
The definition of sulfidic material (in Polish: materiał siarczkowy) was first introduced in the 6th edition of the Polish Soil Classification in 2019, but the methods of identifying potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) using pH measurements had not earlier been applied in Poland. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to compare two simple tests approved as international standards and recommended in the Polish Soil Classification – incubation method and hydrogen peroxide tests – to identify PASS in three soil profiles in the Baltic coastal area (Reda River mouth, northern Poland). In the first test, soil pH (1:1 soil-to-water suspension) was determined in newly taken soil samples and after incubation for 8 weeks at room temperature. Initial pH values varied from 5.5 to 7.0, and after 8 weeks of incubation dropped below pH 4 in two of the three soil profiles. In the second test, freshly collected samples, after initial pH measurement, were oxidised in 30% hydrogen peroxide. Application of this strong oxidising agent drastically decreased pH values to below 2.5 in all three soil profiles. The pH measurements both after incubation and after application of hydrogen peroxide allow for an unequivocal identification of the sulfidic material, thus confirming the presence of PASS in the Reda River mouth area. Both tests based on pH measurements are easy to perform and low-cost, which implies their common application in PASS recognition. However, careful attention should be paid to some limitations of the hydrogen peroxide test – mainly, the possible overestimation of acidity in organic samples. This procedure should therefore be considered only as complementary. Because of the dominance of organic PASS materials in Polish soils, a modification of the pH criterion for the sulfidic material was proposed in accordance with the approach used in the Finnish–Swedish classification.
Andriesse, W., 1993. Acid sulphate soils: diagnosing the ills. [In:] Dent, D.,L., van Mensvoort, M.E.F. (Eds.), Selected papers of the Ho Chi Minh City Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, 11–29.
Andriesse, W., van Mensvoort M.E.F., 2006. Acid sulfate soils: Distribution and extent. [In:] Lal, R. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Taylor and Francis, New York, 14–28.
Boman, A., Becher, M., Mattbäck, S., Sohlenius, G., Auri, J., Öhrling, C., Edén, P., 2018. Klassificering av sura sulfatjordar i Finland och Sverige (Version 1.2018), 8 pp. (in Swedish). https://vimlavattenorg.files.w... [23.7.2019].
Canfield, D.E., Raiswell, R., Westrich, J.T., Reaves, C.M., Berner, R.A., 1986. The use of chromium reduction in the analysis of reduced inorganic sulfur in sediments and shales. Chemical Geology 54, 149–155.
Creeper, N., Fitzpatrick, R., Shand, P., 2012. A simplified incubation method using chiptrays.
as incubation vessels to identify sulphidic materials in acid sulphate soils. Soil Use and Management 28, 401–408. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475....
Czerwiński, Z., 1996. Zasolenie wód i gleb na Kujawach (Salinity of water and soils in the Kujawy region). Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 47(3/4), 131–143.
Dalhem, K., 2016. Bestämning av svavelspecies i sediment: En utvecklad destillationsmetod för reducerade svavelspecies (An advanced analytical method for determining sulfur species in sediments). Manuscript of MSc-thesis. Åbo Akademi University, Geology and Mineralogy, 48 pp.
Dent, J.M., 1947. Some soil problems of empoldered rice lands in Sierra Leone. Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture 15, 206–212.
Dent, D., 1986. Acid sulphate soils: a baseline for research and development. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen.
Dent, D.L., Pons, L.J., 1995. A world perspective on acid sulphate soils. Geoderma 67, 263– 276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7....
Doyne, H.C., 1937. A note on the acidity of mangrove swamp soils. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 14, 286–287.
Eden, P., Rankonen, E., Auri, J., Yli-Halla, M., Österholm, P., Beucher, A., Rosendahl, R., 2012. Definition and classification of Finnish acid sulfate soils. 7th International Acid Sulfate Soil Conference, Vaasa. Geological Survey Of Finland, Guide 56, 29–30.
Fältmarsch, R.M., Cström, M.E., Vuori, K.-M., 2008. Environmental risks of metals mobilised from acid sulphate soils in Finland: a literature review. Boreal Environment Research 13, 444–456.
FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil description. 4th edition. Rome.
Grant, W.T., 2006. pH. [In:] Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Lal, R. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Taylor and Francis, New York, 263–276.
Hulisz, P., 2007. Propozycje systematyki gleb zasolonych występujących w Polsce (Proposals of systematics of salt-affected soils in Poland). Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 63(1/2), 121–129.
Hulisz, P., 2013. Geneza, właściwości i pozycja systematyczna marszy brakicznych w strefie oddziaływania wód Bałtyku (Genesis, properties and systematics position of the brackish marsh soils in the Baltic coastal zone). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Rozprawy habilitacyjne, 137 pp.
Hulisz, P., Piernik, A., Mantilla-Contreras, J., Elvisto, T., 2016. Main driving factors for seacoast vegetation in the Southern and Eastern Baltic. Wetlands 36, 909–919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157....
Hulisz, P., Kwasowski, W., Pracz, J., Malinowski, R., 2017. Coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland: a review. Soil Science Annual 68(1), 46–54.
IUSS Working Group WRB, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports, 106, FAO, Rome.
Jayalath, N., 2012. Laboratory protocols for acid sulfate soils. CSIRO, Australia.
Jegliński, W., 2009. The structure and evolution of the contemporary delta of the Reda River (Southern Baltic, Poland). Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 38, 27–40.
Kabała, C. et al., 2019. Polish Soil Classification, 6th edition – principles, classification scheme and correlations. Soil Science Annual 70(1), 71–97. https://doi.org/10.2478/ssa-20....
Kondracki, J., 2001. Geografia regionalna Polski. Wyd. Nauk. PWN, Warszawa, 441 pp.
Kwasowski, W., 1999. Charakterystyka gleb siarczkowych i kwaśnych siarczanowych rejonu Zatoki Puckiej i okolic Mrzeżyna (Characteristics of the sulphide and acid sulphate soils in the areas of the Puck Lagoon and Mrzeżyno). Manuscript of PhD thesis. SGGW, Warsaw.
Langenhoff, R., 1986. Distribution, mapping, classification and use of Acid Sulfate Soils in the tropics. Stenc nr 6978. Soil Survey Institute (STIBOKA), Wageningen.
Mattbäck, S., Boman, A., Österholm, P., 2017. Hydrogeochemical impact of coarse-grained post-glacial acid sulfate soil materials. Geoderma 308, 291–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geod....
Niedźwiecki, E., Protasowicki, M., Czyż, H., Wojcieszczuk, T., Malinowski, R., 2002. Właściwości silnie zakwaszonych gleb Karsiborskiej Kępy znajdujących się pod oddziaływaniem wód rzeczno-morskich (Chemical properties of Karsiborska Kępa island’s strongly-acidic soils influenced by riverine-marine waters). Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych 482, 397–402.
Niedźwiecki, E., Protasowicki, M., Wojcieszczuk, T., Malinowski, R., 2000. Zawartość siarki w glebach wstecznej delty Świny na przykładzie gleb organicznych Karsiborskiej Kępy (Sulphur content in soils of the Świna River reverse delta on the example of organic soils of the Karsiborska Kępa Island). Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis 204, Agricultura 81, 97–102.
Pons, L.J., 1973. Outline of the genesis, characteristics, classification and Improvement of acid sulphate soils. Proceedings of International Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils, ILRI, Wageningen, 3–27.
Pracz, J., 1989. Właściwości gleb tworzących się przy udziale słonej wody gruntowej w polskiej strefie przybałtyckiej (Properties of soils formed under the influence of saline ground water in the region of the Polish Baltic coast). Rozprawy naukowe i monografie. Wyd. SGGW-AR, Warszawa, 1–91.
Pracz, J., Kwasowski, W., 2005. Organiczne gleby słone występujące w rejonie Zatoki Puckiej (Organic saline soils from the area of the Puck Bay). Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 46 (3/4), 89–99.
Pracz, J., Kwasowski, W., 2006. Properties of sulphide soils of the Moście Błota peatland at Puck Bay. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 16(5D), 105–113.
Smith, J., Melville, M.D., 2004. Iron monosulfide formation and oxidation in drain-bottom sediments of an acid sulfate soil environment. Applied Geochemistry 19, 1837–1853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apge....
Staszek, W., Kistowski, M., 1999. Studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego gminy Kosakowo. Uwarunkowania przyrodnicze (Study of conditions and directions of spatial development of the Kosakowo commune. Natural conditions). Biuro Studiów i Pomiarów Proekologicznych EKOMETRIA, Gdańsk, 8 pp.
Sullivan, L.A., Fitzpatrick, R.W., Bush, R. T., Burton, E.D., Shand, P., Ward, N.J., 2010. The classification of acid sulfate soil materials: further modifications. Southern Cross GeoScience Technical Report No. 310. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia.
Sullivan, L., Ward, N., Toppler, N., Lancaster, G., 2018. National Acid Sulfate Soils Guidance: National acid sulfate soils identification and laboratory methods manual. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Canberra, ACT.
Systematyka gleb Polski, 2019. Polskie Towarzystwo Gleboznawcze, Komisja Genezy Klasyfikacji i Kartografii Gleb. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu, Polskie Towarzystwo Gleboznawcze, Wrocław -Warszawa, 250 pp.
Urbańska, E., Hulisz, P., Bednarek, R., 2012. Effect of sulphide oxidation on selected soil properties. Journal of Elementology 17(3), 505–515. https://doi.org/10.5601/jelem.....
Uścinowicz, S., 2006, A relative sea–level curve for the Polish Southern Baltic Sea, Quaternary International 145–146, 86–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
Uzarowicz, Ł., 2013. Microscopic and microchemical study of iron sulphide weathering in a chronosequence of technogenic and natural soils. Geoderma 197–198, 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geod....
Uzarowicz, Ł., Skiba, S., 2011. Technogenic soils developed on mine spoils containing iron sulphides: Mineral transformations as an indicator of pedogenesis. Geoderma 163(1–2), 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geod....
van Breemen, N., 1973. Soil forming processes in acid sulphate soils. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, 66–129.
van Breemen, N., 1982. Genesis, morphology, and classification of acid sulfate soils in coastal plains. [In:] Kittrick, J.A., Fanning, D.S., Hossner, L.R. (Eds.), Acid Sulfate Weathering. SSSA Special Publication 10, 95–108.
Ward, N.J., Sullivan, L.A., Bush, R.T., Lin, C., 2002. Assessment of peroxide oxidation for acid sulfate soil analysis. 2. Acidity determination. Australian Journal of Soil Research 40 (3), 443–454.