PL EN
ORIGINAL PAPER
Selected problems of sustainable management of rusty soils in forestry
Piotr Sewerniak 1  
,   Michał Jankowski 2  
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Soil Science and Landscape Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Polska
2
Katedra Gleboznawstwa i Kształtowania Krajobrazu, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Polska
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Piotr Sewerniak   

Department of Soil Science and Landscape Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Lwowska 1, 87-100, Toruń, Polska
Submission date: 2021-06-30
Final revision date: 2021-10-04
Acceptance date: 2021-10-29
Online publication date: 2021-12-31
Publication date: 2021-12-31
 
Soil Sci. Ann., 2021, 72(4)143477
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Since the end of the 18th century Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures have been artificially introduced in extensive areas of rusty soils in Central Europe. Such forest management practice has involved, however, several serious problems, like e.g. soil degradation implying the decrease in productivity of forest sites, and the clear increase in the risk of disturbances (pest gradations, fires, wind damages etc.) occurrence. Those troubles have involved the increasing discussion on rational forest management on sandy soils, which are predominant in lowland woodlands of Central Europe. Thus, in this paper we aimed to indicate selected problems of sustainable management of rusty soils in forestry with regard to lowland forests found in the region. The special focus was paid on controversies being related to conversion of pine stands overgrowing these soils, because of its especially high importance for forest management in Central Europe. We postulate that we should intensify the conversion of pure pine stands overgrowing rusty soils into mixed forests, which would reduce the risk of the assumed, and being involved with the ongoing climate changes, problems with the stability of pine forests in Central Europe. The study shows that the current methodology of forest site types diagnosis used in Poland may lead to underestimation of the types, and consequently it consolidates the focus of Polish forestry on breeding pine stands on rusty soils. Following the existing controversies regarding the diagnosis of a forest site type on rusty soils, we postulate that we should more broadly underplant pine stands overgrowing the soils with deciduous trees, regardless of the diagnosed forest site type in forest inventory works. In turn, in conversions executed in maturing conifer stands using a gap cutting the emphasis should be put on plant diversity. Namely, we highlight in the paper that in the gaps, besides major deciduous species (usually oak and/or beech), the admixture of ameliorative trees should obligatory be introduced (e.g. European hornbeam, Carpinus betulus), which happens to be ignored in practice. We postulate also that logging residues removal, which is still executed in some forest districts in Poland, should be skipped. This practice is especially irrational when it is done in sites dedicated for stand conversion, because it highly increases the risk of mortality and/or of the distinct decrease in growth dynamics of young hardwoods introduced in post-pine sites.
 
REFERENCES (62)
1.
Andrzejczyk, T., Sewerniak, P., 2016. Soils and forest site types of the seed stands of common (Quercus robur) and sessile (Q. petraea) oaks in Poland. Sylwan 160(8), 674–683. (in Polish with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
2.
Andrzejczyk, T., Dzwonkowski, M., Pawłowski, M., Działak, R. 2014. Effect of lateral shelter on a height growth of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) in young growth phase. Sylwan 158(10), 723−732. (in Polish with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
3.
Banaszuk, H., 1979. Genesis and evolution of the soil cover on dunes of the Biebrza basin. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual, 30(2), 111–142. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
4.
Bednarek, R., Michalska, M., 1998, Effect of agricultural use on morphology and properties of rusty soils in the surroundings of Bachotek lake in the Brodnica Lakeland. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępu Nauk Rolniczych 460, 487–497. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
5.
Biały, K., 1997.The problem of soil degradation in forest ecosystems of the Drawa National Park. [In:] Pawlaczyk, P., (Ed.), Soils and vegetation of forest ecosystems in the Drawa National Park. Sorus, Poznań, 25–42. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
6.
Biały, K., 1999. Optionality in discrimination of forest site types and planning final species compositions in stands on podzolic soils. Sylwan 143(5), 65–72. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
7.
Bielak, K., Dudzińska, M., Pretzsch, H., 2014. Mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] can be more productive than monocultures. Evidence from over 100 years of observation of long-term experiments. Forest Systems 23(3), 573–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/fs/2....
 
8.
Bolte, A., Ammer, C., Löf, M., Madsen, P., Nabuurs, G.-J., Schall, P., Spathelf, P., Rock, J., 2009. Adaptive forest management in central Europe: Climate change impacts, strategies and integrative concept. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 473–482. https://doi.org/10.1080/028275....
 
9.
Borowiec, S., 1961. Leached Brown Soils in Tabórz Pine sites. Sylwan 105(5), 31–41. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
10.
Braun-Blanquet, J., 1964. Pflanzensoziologie. Grundzüder Vegetationskunde. Springer-Verlag, Wien-New York.
 
11.
Braunerde. Steckbriefe Brandenburger Böden, 2005. Ministerium für Ländliche Entwicklung, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz. Potsdam.
 
12.
Brożek, S., Zwydak, M., Lasota, J., 2008. Numerical index of trophic variants of Podzols and Arenosols subtypes. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 59(1), 7–17. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
13.
Czępińska-Kamińska, D., 1986. Zależność między rzeźbą terenu a typami gleb obszarów wydmowych Puszczy Kampinoskiej. Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa, 5–72. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
14.
Czubaszek, R., 2006. The soils of the inpeatland dunes in the Biebrza River Valley and the Narew River Valley. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Białostockiej 17, 41–62. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
15.
Dyderski, M., Paź, S., Frelich, L.E., Jagodziński, A.M., 2017. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions? Global Change Biology 24, 1150–1163. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13....
 
16.
Dziadowiec, H., 1987. The decomposition of plant litter fall in an oak-hornbeam forest and an oak-pine mixed forest of the Białowieża National Park. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 56(1), 169–185. https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.1....
 
17.
Dzwonko, Z., Gawroński, S., 2002. Effect of litter removal on species richness and acidification of a mixed oak-pine woodland. Biological Conservation 106, 389–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-....
 
18.
Gołąb, Z., 1978. Chemical changes occurring in beech and hornbeam leaves in their decomposition course in natural conditions. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 29(2), 31–41. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
19.
Gornowicz, R. , Pilarek, Z., Kwaśna, H., Łakomy, P., Kuźmiński, R., Jakubowski, J., Stempski, W., 2021. Biomass of young Scots pine stand on dystrophic site type with regard to the method of logging residues management and way of soil preparation. Sylwan 165(1), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
20.
Harasimiuk, A., Groblewski, J., 2005. Why the young oaks do not grow? On the spruce negative impact on forest site. Roczniki Gleboznawcze –Soil Science Annual 56(1/2), 67–75.
 
21.
Instrukcja urządzania lasu. Część II. Instrukcja wyróżniania i kartowania w Lasach Państwowych typów siedliskowych lasu oraz zbiorowisk roślinnych. Centrum Informacyjne Lasów Państwowych, Warszawa 2012. (in Polish).
 
22.
Iszkuło, G., Armatys, L., Dering, M., Ksepko, M., Tomaszewski, D., Ważna, A., Giertych, M.J., 2020. Mistletoe as a threat to the health state of coniferous forest. Sylwan 164(3), 226–236. https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
23.
IUSS Working Group WRB, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014 (Update 2015). International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome.
 
24.
Jankowski, M., 2003. Historia rozwoju pokrywy glebowej obszarów wydmowych Kotliny Toruńskiej. PhD thesis, UMK, Toruń. (in Polish).
 
25.
Jankowski, M., 2014. Bielicowanie jako wtórny proces w glebach rdzawych Brodnickiego Parku Krajobrazowego. [In:] Świtoniak, M., Jankowski, M., Bednarek, R. (Eds.), Antropogeniczne przekształcenia pokrywy glebowej Brodnickiego Parku Krajobrazowego. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK, Toruń, 9–24. (in Polish).
 
26.
Jankowski, M., 2019. Pokrywa glebowa. [In:] Sewerniak P., Holc J. (Eds.), Przyroda poligonu toruńskiego stan badań i problemy ochrony. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK, Toruń, 27–42. (in Polish).
 
27.
Janowska, E., 2001. Origin and properties of of rusty soils in the area of the central polish glaciation. Wydawnictwo Fundacja Rozwój SGGW. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
28.
Kabała, C. et al., 2019. Polish Soil Classification, 6th edition – principles, classification scheme and correlations. Soil Science Annual 70(1), 71–97.
 
29.
Kenk, G., Guehne, S., 2001. Management of transformation in central Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 151, 107–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S037....
 
30.
Klasyfikacja gleb leśnych Polski. CILP, Warszawa 2000. (in Polish).
 
31.
Kminikowski, R., 2011. Geograficzne prawidłowości rozmieszczenia gleb w północnej części zlewni Skarlanki w granicach Brodnickiego Parku Kraobrazowego. Msc Thesis, UMK, Toruń. (in Polish).
 
32.
Konecka-Betley, K., Czępińska-Kamińska, D., Janowska, E., Okołowicz, M., 2002. Gleby strefy ochrony ścisłej i częściowej w Rezerwacie Biosfery - Puszcza Kampinoska. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 53(3/4), 5–21.
 
33.
Kowalkowski, A., 1983. Influence of the utilization of biomass in pine stands on the circulation of mineral nutrients and the features of soils on poor coniferous forest sites. Prace IBL 598, 68–85.
 
34.
Liang, J. et al., 2016. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354, aaf8957. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
 
35.
Lindner, M., Fitzgerald, J.B., Zimmermann, N.E., Reyer, C., Delzon, S., van der Maaten, E., Schelhaas, M.-J., Lasch, P., Eggers, J., van der Maaten-Theunissen, M., Suckow, F., Psomas, A., Poulter, B., Hanewinkel, M., 2014. Climate change and European forests: What do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management? Journal of Environmental Management 146, 69–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.je....
 
36.
Mendyk, Ł., Sewerniak, P., Strzyżewski, T., Rutkowska, P., Sykuła, M., Szałek, J., Kondratowska, M., 2014. Mapa zgodności pokrywy glebowej z roślinnością. [In:] Świtoniak, M., Jankowski, M., Bednarek, R. (Eds.), Antropogeniczne przekształcenia pokrywy glebowej Brodnickiego Parku Krajobrazowego. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK, Toruń, 111–127. (in Polish).
 
37.
Olaczek, 1976. Changes in the vegetation cover of Poland since the middle of XIX century. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych 177, 369–408. (in Polish with English summary).
 
38.
Operat, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2005. Operat glebowo-siedliskowy. Nadleśnictwo Brodnica, Oława, Bolesławiec, Głogów. Biuro Usług Ekologicznych i Urządzeniowo-Leśnych „Operat”, Toruń. (in Polish).
 
39.
Operat, 1997. Operat glebowo-siedliskowy. Nadleśnictwo Jamy. Zakład Usług Ekologicznych i Urządzeniowo-Leśnych. mgr inż. Andrzej Kosakowski, Poznań. (in Polish).
 
40.
Operat, 1999. Operat glebowo-siedliskowy. Nadleśnictwo Gniewkowo. Biuro Usług Techniczno-Leśnych “Butel”, Toruń. (in Polish).
 
41.
Plewa, R., Mokrzycki, T., 2017. Occurrence, biology, and economic importance of the sharp-dentated bark beetle Ips acuminatus (Gyllenhal, 1827) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Poland. Sylwan 161(8), 619–629. https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
42.
Pokojska, U., 1986. The role of humus in formation of the reaction, the buffer properties and the cation-exchange capacity of forest soils. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 37(2/3), 249–263. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
43.
Pokojska, U., 1992. Adsorption and exchange of cations by forest humus. Wydawnictwo UMK. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
44.
Pretzsch, H. et. al., 2015. Growth and yield of mixed versus pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) analysed along a productivity gradient through Europe. European Journal of Forest Research 134, 927–947. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-....
 
45.
Pruskinkiewicz, Z., 1970. Actual problems of the protection of forest soils in Poland. Sylwan 114(12), 1–6. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
46.
Prusinkiewicz, Z., Kowalkowski, A., Królikowaki, L., 1983. The protection and recultivation of forest soils. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 34(3), 185–201. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
47.
Rutkowska, P.A., 2019. Przebieg procesu bielicowania w cyklu uprawy monokultur sosnowych w wybranych obszarach piaszczystych Polski Północnej. PhD thesis, UMK, Toruń. (in Polish).
 
48.
Rutkowski, P., 2002. The research of differentiation forest units connected with sandy soils. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum 1(1), 73–85. (in Polish with English abstract).
 
49.
Schelhaas, M.-J., Nabuurs, G-J., Hengeveld, G., Reyer, C., Hanewinkel, M., Zimmermann, N.E., Cullmann, D., 2015. Alternative forest management strategies to account for climate change-induced productivity and species suitability changes in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 15, 1581–1594. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113....
 
50.
Sewerniak, P., 2011. Pozyskiwanie biomasy a gleba leśna. Las Polski 4, 10-12. (in Polish).
 
51.
Sewerniak, P., 2013. Site index of Scots pine stands in south-western Poland in relation to forest site types and soil units. Sylwan 157(7), 516–525. (in Polish with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
52.
Sewerniak, P., 2016a. Impact of land relief on site index and growth parameters of Scots pine stands on inland dunes in the Torun Basin. Sylwan 160(8), 647–655. (in Polish with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.26202/sylwa....
 
53.
Sewerniak, P., 2016b. The effect of former agricultural use on the forest soil features against problems with mapping of post-agricultural forest habitats. [In:] Zielony, R. (Ed.), Siedliska leśne zmienione i zniekształcone. CILP, Warszawa, 43–62. (in Polish with English summary).
 
54.
Sewerniak, P., 2020. Plant species richness or soil fertility: which affects more the productivity of Scots pine in Central Europe? Annals of Forest Research 63(2), 57–73. https://doi.org/10.15287/afr.2....
 
55.
Sewerniak, P., Jankowski, M., 2017.Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland. Acta Oecologica 82, 52–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acta....
 
56.
Sewerniak, P., Puchałka, R., 2020. Topographically induced variation of microclimatic and soil conditions drives ground vegetation diversity in managed Scots pine stands on inland dunes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 291, 108054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrf....
 
57.
Siedliskowe podstawy hodowli lasu. OR-WLP w Bedoniu, Warszawa 2004.
 
58.
Sierota, Z., Grodzki, W., Szczepkowski, A., 2019. Abiotic and Biotic Disturbances Affecting Forest Health in Poland over the Past 30 Years: Impacts of Climate and Forest Management. Forests 10, 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10010....
 
59.
Spiecker, H., 2003. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe - temperate zone. Journal of Environmental Management 67, 55–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S030....
 
60.
Vild, O., Šipoš, J., Szabo, P., Macek, M., Chudomelová, M., Kopecky, M., Suchánkowá. S., 2018. Legacy of historical litter raking in temperate forest plant communities. Journal of Vegetation Sciences 29, 596–606. https://doi:10.1111/jvs.12642.
 
61.
Zasady hodowli lasu. CILP, Warszawa 2012.
 
62.
Zerbe, S., 2002. Restoration of natural broad-leaved woodland in Central Europe on sites with coniferous forest plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 167, 27–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S037....
 
eISSN:2300-4975
ISSN:2300-4967