Effect of monocalcium phosphate on the concentration of cadmium chemical fractions in two calcareous soils in Iran
More details
Hide details
Soil Science, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran
Farzad Rassaei   

Soil Science, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran
Submission date: 2022-05-11
Final revision date: 2022-07-20
Acceptance date: 2022-08-02
Online publication date: 2022-08-02
This study has been done to see the impact of phosphorus (P) on the concentration of cadmium (Cd) chemical fractions in two sorts of calcareous soils within the Fars province in Iran. Because of these interactions, we looked at the influence of phosphorus on cadmium fractions. Variables were three levels of Cd (0.0, 30.0 and 60.0 mg kg-1 of soil from CdSO4·8H2O), three levels of p (0.0, 50.0 and 100.0 mg kg-1 of soil from Ca (H2PO4)2·H2O, three levels Incubation time (2, 4 and 8 weeks) and two sorts of soil (clay and sandy clay loam). The randomized completed block design (RCBD) was used for this research. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatments, the sequential extraction procedure was done to determine cadmium concentration in WsEx (Water Soluble and Exchangeable), Sorb (EDTA extractable), MnOx (Manganese Oxides), Car (Carbonate), OM (Organic matter), AFeOx (Amorphous Iron Oxides), CFeOx (Crystaline Fe oxides) and Res (Residual) fractions. The results showed that 69.0 to 71.0% of the added Cd was removed within the WsEx, Sorb and MnOx fractions. Cadmium concentration in Sorb, OM and Res fraction was higher within clay soil while cadmium concentration within WsEx and Car fractions were higher within sandy clay loam soil. Adding P as monocalcium phosphate reduced cadmium concentration within WsEx and Sorb fractions while increased Car, OM and Res fractions. The presence of phosphorus reduces the concentration of Cd in those forms that are easily released into soil solution (WsEx and Sorb) from where they'll be absorbed by plants and thus decrease cadmium uptake by plants.
Adriano, D.C., 1986. Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment. Springer, New York.
Allen, S.E., Grinshaw, H.M., Parkinson, J.A., Qjuarmby, C., 1974. Chemical methods for analyzing ecological materials. Oxford Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 565.
Antoniadis, N., Alloway, B.J., 2001. Availability of Cd, Ni and Zn to Rye grass in sewage sludge treated soils at different temperatures. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 132, 201–214.
Basta, N.T., Gradwohl, R., Snethen, K.L., Schroder., J.L., 2001. Chemical immobilization of lead, zinc, and cadmium in smelter-contaminated soils using biosolids and rock phosphate. Journal of Environmental Quality 30, 1222–1230.
Dheri, G.S., Brar, M.S., Malhi, S.S., 2007. Influence of phosphorus application on growth and cadmium uptake of spinach in two Cd contaminated soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 170, 495–499.
Gee, G.W., J. W. Bauder., 1986. Particle-size analysis. In Methods of soil analysis, part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods, A. Klute ed., 2nd ed., 383–411. Madison, WI: ASA, SSSA.
Grant, C.A., Sheppard, S.C., 2008. Fertilizer impacts on cadmium availability in agricultural soils and crops. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 14(2), 210–228.
Grant, C.A., Buckley, W.T., Bailey, L.D., Selles, F., 1998. Cadmium accumulation in crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 78, 1–17.
Gupta, P.K., 2000. Soil, plant, water and fertilizer analysis. India: Agrobios, New Dehli.
He, Q.B., Singh. B.R., 1994. Cadmium uptake by crops from phosphorus fertilisers I. Yield and cadmium concentration. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 74, 251–265.
IUSS Working Group WRB, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome.
Jeng, A.S., Singh, B.R., 1993. Partitioning and distribution of cadmium and zinc in selected cultivated soils in Norway. Soil Science 156(4), 240–250.
Jones, K.C., Johnston, A.E., 1989. Cadmium in cereal grain and herbage from long-term experimental plots at Rothamsted, UK. Environmental Pollution 57(3), 199–216.
Kim, B., McBride, MB., 2006. A test of sequential extractions for determining metal speciation in sewage sludge-amended soils. Environmental Pollution 144, 475–482. 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.034.
Kukier, U., Channey, RL., Ryan, JL., Daniels, WL., Dowdy, RH., Granato, TC., 2010. Phytoavailability of Cd in longterm biosolid amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 39, 519–530.
Lambert, M., Pierzynski, G., Hettiarachchi, G.., 1997. The use of phosphorus in sequestration of lead and cadmium in a smelter slag. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference on Hazardous Waste Research 39-449. Ln:L.E. Erickson et al.(eds.).
Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42, 421–28.
Lu, A., Zhang, S., Shan, X.Q., 2005. Time effect on the fractionation of heavy metals. Geoderma, 125, 225–234.
Ma, L.Q., Rao, G.N., 1997. Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 26, 259–264.
Ma, Y.B., Uren N.C., 1998. Transformation of heavy metals added to soil__ Application of a new sequential extraction procedure. Geoderma 84, 157–168.
Mahler, R.J., Bingham, F.T., Page, A.L., Ryan, J.A., 1982. Cadmium-enriched sewage sludge application to acid and calcareous soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 11, 694–700.
Matusik, J., Bajda, T., Manecki, M., 2008. Immobilization of aqueous cadmium by addition of phosphates. Journal of Hazardous Materials 152, 1332–1339.
Misra, A.K., Sarkunan, V., Das, M., Nayar, P.K., 1990. Transformation of added heavy metals in soils under flooded condition. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 38, 416–418.
Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In Methods of soil analysis, ed. A. L. Page, et al., 539–79. Madison, WI: ASA, SSSA.
Rassaei, F., 2021. Effect of different acidic phosphorus agents on the cadmium chemical fractions in calcareous soil. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 14(21), 1–8.
Rassaei, F., Hoodaji, M., Abtahi, S.A., 2020c. Adsorption kinetic and cadmium fractions in two calcareous soils affected by zinc and different moisture regimes. Paddy and Water Environment 18, 595–606.
Rassaei, F., Hoodaji, M., Abtahi, S.A., 2020d. Cadmium speciation as influenced by soil water content and zinc and the studies of kinetic modeling in two soils textural classes. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 8(3), 286–294.
Rassaei, F., Hoodaji, M., Abtahi, S.A., 2019a. Cadmium Chemical Forms in Two Calcareous Soils Treated with Different Levels of Incubation Time and Moisture Regimes. Journal of Environmental Protection 10, 500–513.
Rassaei, F., Hoodaji, M., Abtahi, S.A., 2020b. Fractionation and mobility of cadmium and zinc in calcareous soils of Fars Province, Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 13(20), 1–7.
Rassaei, F., Hoodaji, M., Abtahi, S.A., 2019b. Zinc and Incubation Time Effect on Cadmium Chemical Fractions in Two Types of Calcareous Soil. Agrochimica 63(4), 337–349.
Rassaei, F., Hoodaji, M., Abtahi, S.A., 2020a. Cadmium Fractions in Two Calcareous Soils Affected by Incubation Time, Zinc and Moisture Regime, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 51(4), 456–467.
Richards, L.A., 1969. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory. Washington. 160 p. USDA. Agriculture Handbook, 60.
Roberts, D.R., Ford, R.G., Sparks, D.L., 2003. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Zn Complexation on Metal Oxides Using EXAFS Spectroscopy. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 263, 364–376.
Wu, Z., Wang, F., Liu, S., Du, Y., Li, F., Du, R., Wen, D., Zhao, J., 2016. Comparative responses to silicon and selenium in relation to cadmium uptake, compartmentation in roots, and xylem transport in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis) under cadmium stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 131, 173–180.
Yao, Wb., Huang, L., Zhao, Fp. et al., (2022). Effective remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils by a novel slow-release phosphate amendment. Journal of Central South University 29, 1185–1196.
Zhao, Y., Zhang, C., Wang, C., Huang, Y., Liu, Z., 2020. Increasing phosphate inhibits cadmium uptake in plants and promotes synthesis of amino acids in grains of rice. Environmental pollution 257, 113496.