Effects of neem leaf extract on inorganic nitrogen transformation in sandy soil
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Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Plant Science Section, Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand
Faculty of Natural Resources, Department of Thai Traditional Medicine, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Thailand
Somchai Butnan   

Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Plant Science Section, Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University, 47000, Sakon Nakhon, Thailand
Submission date: 2022-08-02
Final revision date: 2022-09-08
Acceptance date: 2022-10-26
Online publication date: 2022-10-26
Publication date: 2022-11-25
Soil Sci. Ann., 2022, 73(4)156072
The inhibitory effects of neem leaf extract on fertilizer nitrogen (N) transformation in soil have not been fully recognized. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effects of five nitrification inhibitors on the status of soil inorganic N, urea hydrolysis, and nitrification: i) no inhibitor (control); ii) nitrapyrin; and three rates of neem leaf extract based on the dry weight of the raw material: iii) 1 g kg-1 soil; iv) 2 g kg-1 soil; v) 4 g kg-1 soil. Neem leaf extract in all rates increased urea hydrolysis rate on days 5-15. In contrast, nitrapyrin decreased urea hydrolysis on days 5-10, compared to the control. As for nitrification, neem leaf extract showed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects. The stimulation appeared on day 3, whereas inhibition occurred and peaked on days 5-15. Nitrapyrin showed inhibitory effects on days 10-15, reaching its peak on day 15. Increasing rates of neem leaf extract brought about increases in stimulation and inhibition of urea hydrolysis and nitrification. The results conclusively stated that the neem leaf extract had generally faster, stronger, and longer nitrification inhibition than nitrapyrin. The stimulation in the early phase and the inhibition in the later phase of the incubation of neem leaf extract were more pronounced with higher application rates.
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