PL EN
PRACA PRZEGLĄDOWA
Przemiany nawozów azotowych w warunkach klimatu umiarkowanego
 
Więcej
Ukryj
1
Department of Environmental Chemistry and Risk Assesment, Institute of Environmental Protection - National Research Institute, Poland
2
Chair of Agricultural Chemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Marta Kijeńska   

Zakład Chemii Środowska i Oceny Ryzyka, Institute of Environmental Protection - National Research Institute, Krucza 5/11 d, 00-548, Warsaw, Polska
Data nadesłania: 16-06-2020
Data ostatniej rewizji: 29-11-2020
Data akceptacji: 14-01-2021
Data publikacji online: 06-04-2021
Data publikacji: 06-04-2021
 
Soil Sci. Ann., 2021, 72(1)132440
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
STRESZCZENIE
Rolnictwo przyczynia się do globalnego ocieplenia głównie poprzez emisję metanu i podtlenku azotu. Szczególnie istotny jest udział podtlenku azotu, który stanowi aż 50% całkowitej emisji z gruntów rolnych. Jest on wytwarzany w wyniku przemiany mikrobiologicznej azotu wprowadzanego do gleby wraz z nawozami mineralnymi. Zmiany warunków pogodowych w odpowiedzi na zmiany klimatu mogą istotnie wpłynąć na efektywność wykorzystania azotu nawozowego w rolnictwie, a w konsekwencji pociągnąć za sobą niepożądane skutki środowiskowe. Kwestia ta ma szczególne znaczenie ze względu na dominującą rolę, jaką ten element nawozowy odgrywa w rolnictwie, a z drugiej strony ze względu na globalne ryzyko środowiskowe w ramach tzw. cyklu azotowego. Przeprowadzona w pracy analiza wskazuje, że spowodowane głównie warunkami klimatycznymi przemiany związków azotu w glebie powodują uwalnianie się azotu z obszaru produkcji rolnej. Dyspersja w postaci azotu molekularnego jest głównie wynikiem procesów denitryfikacji. W ten sposób ponad 50% azotu traconego z rolnictwa jest usuwane z gruntów rolnych. Z rolniczego punktu widzenia denitryfikacja jest procesem, który ogranicza zasoby dostępnego azotu, ale z punktu widzenia ochrony środowiska proces ten należy uznać za naturalny mechanizm samooczyszczania się środowiska i ochrony wód. Chociaż stanowi on jedynie około 25% całkowitej straty tego pierwiastka, to jednak rozcieńczanie azotu z obszarów rolniczych poprzez ługowanie jest uważane za najbardziej uciążliwe dla środowiska wodnego.
 
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